Massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common consideration in unstable patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain, dyspnea, or cardiac arrest. It is a potentially lethal condition necessitating prompt recognition and aggressive management. Conventional diagnostic modalities in the ED, including chest computed tomography angiography and ventilation-perfusion scanning, require the unstable patient to leave the department, and raise concerns over renal injury. Several case reports document findings of massive PE on echocardiography performed in the ED; however, none was performed, interpreted, and acted upon in the form of thrombolytic therapy by an emergency physician without the additional benefit of a cardiologist’s interpretation or a confirmatory imaging study.
We present a case that illustrates the utility of ED focused bedside echocardiography in suspected massive PE and briefly review direct and indirect ultrasound findings of acute PE.
A case of massive PE in a 61-year-old woman is reported. In this patient with marked dyspnea, progressive hemodynamic instability, and contraindications to definitive imaging, ED focused bedside echocardiography provided valuable information that strongly suggested the diagnosis and led to alteplase administration. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of thrombolytic therapy administration for acute massive PE based solely on clinical presentation and an emergency physician-performed bedside echocardiogram.
In the hands of an experienced emergency physician ultrasonographer, ED focused bedside echocardiography provides a safe, rapid, and non-invasive diagnostic adjunct for evaluation of the patient suspected of having massive PE.
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Published online: August 05, 2011
Accepted: May 20, 2011
Received in revised form: October 30, 2010
Received: September 10, 2010
Streaming videos: Two brief real-time ultrasound clips that accompany this article are available in streaming video at www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/jem. Click on Video Clips 1 and 2.
© 2011 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.