Chemical burns are more common in developing countries, with up to 20% of all burns (intentional and work-related) being caused by acids, whereas in developed countries chemical burns tend to happen at work, comprising up to 16% of all workplace-related burns in one report (
- Dissanaike S.
- Rahimi M.
Epidemiology of burn injuries: highlighting cultural and socio-demographic aspects.
Int Rev Psychiatry. 2009; 21: 505-511
2). Intentional chemical burns in developing countries are well described in medical literature as a form of assault or motivated by interpersonal conflicts, and it is increasingly frequent because chemicals such as sulfuric acid (used to refill dry lead–acid batteries) are readily available and inexpensive (
- Mian M.A.
- Mullins R.F.
- Alam B.
- et al.
Ann Burns Fire Disasters. 2011; 24: 89-93
- Peck M.D.
Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: Intentional burns in adults.
Burns. 2012; 38: 630-637
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of Emergency Medicine
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Epidemiology of burn injuries: highlighting cultural and socio-demographic aspects.Int Rev Psychiatry. 2009; 21: 505-511
- Workplace-related burns.Ann Burns Fire Disasters. 2011; 24: 89-93
- Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: Intentional burns in adults.Burns. 2012; 38: 630-637
- Haddad and Winchester's clinical management of poisoning and drug overdose.4th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia2007
- Acute gastric perforation after acid ingestion.J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002; 35: 360-362
- Fatal pulmonary edema after acute occupational exposure to nitric acid.J Emerg Med. 2010; 39: 39-43
- Nitric acid burns (Case Report).Ann Burns Fire Disasters. 2003; 16 (Available at:) (Accessed July 14, 2014): 155-157
- The nitric acid burn trauma of the skin.J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010; 63: e358-e363
- An experimental study of chemical burns.S Afr Med J. 1962; 36: 754-759
- The treatment of acid and alkali burns: an experimental study.Ann Surg. 1927; 85: 481-489
- Nitric acid: toxicological overview.Public Health England, London2007 (Available at:)https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/338238/hpa_nitric_acid_Toxicological_Overview_v1.pdf
Published online: December 05, 2014
Accepted: September 30, 2014
Received in revised form: July 14, 2014
Received: April 8, 2014
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.