In the United States, an estimated 25 million people initiated nonmedical use of prescription opioid medications between 2002 and 2011 and 16,651 deaths were attributed to use of these medications in 2010. Local, regional, state, and federal governments have intervened to quell the epidemic and, in attempts to change opioid use practices, have enacted legislation, including prescription monitoring programs.
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© 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.