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Ultrasound for the Diagnosis and Management of Suspected Urolithiasis in the Emergency Department

      Abstract

      Background

      This review provides practicing emergency physicians updated information regarding point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) imaging of patients with suspected urolithiasis.

      Methods

      A PubMed literature search was conducted for articles published between January 1, 1996 and May 31, 2017 and limited to human clinical trials written in English with relevant keywords. High-quality studies identified then underwent a structured review. Recommendations herein are made based on the literature review.

      Results

      Two hundred seventy-two abstracts fulfilling the search criteria were screened and 10 appropriate articles were rigorously reviewed in detail. There were 8 prospective studies and 2 retrospective studies. Only 1 of them was a multi-institutional randomized trial. POCUS performed in the emergency department (ED) is moderately sensitive and specific in making the diagnosis of urolithiasis in symptomatic patients. Suspected urolithiasis patients evaluated initially with ED POCUS have complication rates compatible with those evaluated initially with computed tomography.

      Conclusions

      POCUS has moderate accuracy in making the diagnosis of urolithiasis. Nevertheless, it may be safely used as a first line of imaging in ED patients with suspected symptomatic urolithiaisis.

      Keywords

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