Original Contributions| Volume 57, ISSUE 5, P620-628, November 2019

Pharmacist Presence Decreases Time to Prothrombin Complex Concentrate in Emergency Department Patients with Life-Threatening Bleeding and Urgent Procedures



      Reversal of anticoagulation with four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) is critical, yet the optimal timing to 4F-PCC administration and whether quicker administration improves hemostasis remains unknown.


      The objective of this study was to determine if pharmacist presence is predictive of faster time to 4F-PCC.


      This retrospective cohort study included patients receiving 4F-PCC for life-threatening bleeding or urgent procedure in the emergency department (ED) from 2014 to 2018. Patients with pharmacists at bedside (PharmD group) were compared with physician teams alone (control group). The primary outcome was time from ED presentation to 4F-PCC administration.


      Of 252 patients evaluated, 116 patients (46%) were included (n = 50 PharmD group; n = 66 control group). Most patients presented on warfarin (68.1%), and of the life-threatening bleeds (94%), intracranial hemorrhage was most common (67.2%). The median time to 4F-PCC administration was significantly shorter in the PharmD group (66.5 vs. 206.5 min, p < 0.001). Pharmacist at bedside was the only factor independently associated with reduction in time to 4F-PCC (β coefficient −163.5 min, 95% confidence interval −249.4 to −77.7). Although there was no difference in hemostasis or mortality, patients in the PharmD group had a shorter intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) (2 vs. 5 days, p < 0.01) and hospital LOS (5.5 vs. 8 days, p = 0.02).


      A pharmacist at the bedside of patients who present to the ED with life-threatening bleeding or need for emergent procedure decreased time to 4F-PCC administration by 140 min, even after accounting for confounders. Faster time to 4F-PCC was associated with significantly shorter intensive care unit and hospital LOS.


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