Over 20% of patients who experience an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) present in a shockable rhythm, but anywhere from 2-28% of these individuals exhibit refractory ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) and survival rates for refractory cases are low. The use of beta-blockade has become recognized as a novel therapy for refractory VF/VT, but no formal recommendations exist for its use. Several human studies evaluating this treatment modality have been conducted in recent years, thereby generating a need for a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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