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Translating Violence Prevention Programs from Research to Practice: SafERteens Implementation in an Urban Emergency Department

  • Patrick M. Carter
    Correspondence
    Reprint Address: Patrick M. Carter, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Road, NCRC 10-G080, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109.
    Affiliations
    University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Department of Health Behavior/Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan
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  • Rebecca M. Cunningham
    Affiliations
    University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Department of Health Behavior/Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    Department of Emergency Medicine, Hurley Medical Center, Flint, Michigan
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  • Andria B. Eisman
    Affiliations
    Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Department of Health Behavior/Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    Division of Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies, College of Education, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan
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  • Ken Resnicow
    Affiliations
    Department of Health Behavior/Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan
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  • Jessica S. Roche
    Affiliations
    University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan
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  • Jennifer Tang Cole
    Affiliations
    University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan
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  • Jason Goldstick
    Affiliations
    University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan
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  • Amy M. Kilbourne
    Affiliations
    Health Services Research and Development Service, Veterans Health Administration, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC

    Department of Learning Health Sciences
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  • Maureen A. Walton
    Affiliations
    University of Michigan Injury Prevention Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    Addiction Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan
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      Abstract

      Background

      Youth violence is a leading cause of adolescent mortality, underscoring the need to integrate evidence-based violence prevention programs into routine emergency department (ED) care.

      Objectives

      To examine the translation of the SafERteens program into clinical care.

      Methods

      Hospital staff provided input on implementation facilitators/barriers to inform toolkit development. Implementation was piloted in a four-arm effectiveness-implementation trial, with youth (ages 14–18 years) screening positive for past 3-month aggression randomized to either SafERteens (delivered remotely or in-person) or enhanced usual care (EUC; remote or in-person), with follow-up at post-test and 3 months. During maintenance, ED staff continued in-person SafERteens delivery and external facilitation was provided. Outcomes were measured using the RE-AIM implementation framework.

      Results

      SafERteens completion rates were 77.6% (52/67) for remote and 49.1% (27/55) for in-person delivery. In addition to high acceptability ratings (e.g., helpfulness), post-test data demonstrated increased self-efficacy to avoid fighting among patients receiving remote (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–1.36) and in-person (IRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.12–1.36) SafERteens, as well as decreased pro-violence attitudes among patients receiving remote (IRR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75–0.91) and in-person (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77–0.99) SafERteens when compared with their respective EUC groups. At 3 months, youth receiving remote SafERteens reported less non-partner aggression (IRR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31–0.87, Cohen's d −0.39) and violence consequences (IRR 0.47, 95% CI 0.22–1.00, Cohen's d −0.49) compared with remote EUC; no differences were noted for in-person SafERteens delivery. Barriers to implementation maintenance included limited staff availability and a lack of reimbursement codes.

      Conclusions

      Implementing behavioral interventions such as SafERteens into routine ED care is feasible using remote delivery. Policymakers should consider reimbursement for violence prevention services to sustain long-term implementation.

      Keywords

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