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Management of Bleeding Pyogenic Granulomas in Acute Care Settings

      Abstract

      Background

      Pyogenic granulomas are acquired, benign growths of capillary blood vessels that are commonly seen in the pediatric population. Patients with these lesions often present to emergency departments and urgent care centers with persistent bleeding after minor trauma. Much of the published literature describing the management of pyogenic granulomas, however, is focused on outpatient or definitive therapies, and there is limited information on the management of acute bleeding.

      Objective

      We conducted a narrative review to present and evaluate strategies and therapies available to emergency physicians for managing actively bleeding pyogenic granulomas in acute care settings.

      Discussion

      Multiple options are available to emergency physicians to achieve hemostasis. Direct pressure with a nonadherent dressing remains first-line treatment. Additional therapeutic options, such as dressings impregnated with topical vasoconstrictors or hemostatic dressings or agents, can be used if bleeding persists. Certain approaches—silver nitrate, suture ligation, or electrocautery—may be available to some emergency physicians. These therapies, however, can compromise future histologic analysis of tissue for definitive diagnosis and have potential risks.

      Conclusion

      Although there are multiple options to achieve hemostasis in cases of bleeding, some treatments may lead to suboptimal cosmesis or interfere with future management. Many bleeding pyogenic granulomas will become hemostatic with treatments available to emergency physicians. Surgical consultation may be warranted for pyogenic granulomas that are unresponsive to the therapies described in this review.

      Keywords

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