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Diagnosis of Renal Artery Aneurysm by Point-of-Care Ultrasound in the Emergency Department: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

      Abstract

      Background

      Renal artery aneurysm (RAA) is defined as a focal dilatation of ≥50% of the adjacent, disease-free artery. Although typically asymptomatic, RAA can lead to hypertension, hematuria, and rupture. The risk of rupture is higher in pregnant patients and may result in the death of the mother and the fetus. We describe a case of RAA discovered on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in the emergency department.

      Case Report

      A 46-year-old woman with no medical history presented to the emergency department with lower abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased urination. POCUS was performed to evaluate the cause of the patient's symptoms. This study revealed a 2.40 cm × 3.65 cm aneurysm in the right kidney.

      Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This?

      Rupture of RAA occurs in 3% to 5% of cases. Mortality to both the mother and the fetus is particularly high in gravid patients. RAA may be mistaken for other renal entities such as prominent renal veins or hydronephrosis. Properly identifying this pathology via POCUS can lead to early intervention. © 2022 Elsevier Inc.

      Keywords

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