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Acute Myocardial Infarction in a 13-Year-Old Boy after Bone Marrow Transplantation

Published:September 13, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2022.09.021

      Abstract

      Background

      Advances in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) present a unique opportunity for treating leukemia in children. It has also increased the risk of long-term complications in the lungs, genitourinary tract, and nervous system. Coronary artery disease is the most common type of heart disease in older adults, but is not generally acknowledged as a complication of BMT, especially in young patients.

      Case Report

      We report the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in a 13-year-old boy, approximately 5 years after he received a half-matched related bone marrow transplant from his father for T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. Acute myocarditis was suspected early in the clinical course on the basis of his age and clinical presentations, such as atypical chest pain and dyspnea. Follow-up coronary angiography revealed a total occlusion of the right coronary artery, as well as diffused lesions of the left main, anterior descending, and circumflex branch. Fortunately, he was discharged from the hospital in satisfactory general condition after complex treatment.
      Why Should An Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? In this case, its rarity and poor clinical recognition were the main reasons for delayed diagnosis, which led to a delay to coronary angiography. Given the high mortality in cardiovascular complications among BMT recipients, the correct diagnostic assessment in such cases becomes particularly relevant.

      Keywords

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