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Primary Neurologic Symptoms: Have you Considered Pernicious Anemia?

  • Andrew D. Yocum
    Affiliations
    Cleveland Clinic Akron General Department of Emergency Medicine, 1 Akron General Ave. Akron, Ohio, 44307, USA

    Northeast Ohio Medical University; 4209 St. OH-44, Rootstown, Ohio, 44272, USA
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  • Mili Patel
    Affiliations
    Cleveland Clinic Akron General Department of Emergency Medicine, 1 Akron General Ave. Akron, Ohio, 44307, USA

    Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine; 1858 W. Grandview Blvd. Erie, Pennsylvania, 16509, USA
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  • Bradley Palocko
    Affiliations
    Cleveland Clinic Akron General Department of Emergency Medicine, 1 Akron General Ave. Akron, Ohio, 44307, USA
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  • Erin L. Simon
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Erin Simon, DO, Department of Emergency Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Akron General; Akron, Ohio. 1 Akron General Ave., Akron, Ohio 44307, PH: 330-962-9208; Fax: 330-761-3416.
    Affiliations
    Cleveland Clinic Akron General Department of Emergency Medicine, 1 Akron General Ave. Akron, Ohio, 44307, USA

    Northeast Ohio Medical University; 4209 St. OH-44, Rootstown, Ohio, 44272, USA
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Background: Vitamin B12, or cobalamin, is a nutrient that is vital for metabolic function. Absorption of ingested B12 is dependent on intrinsic factor, which is secreted by parietal cells within the stomach. Pernicious anemia is caused by an intrinsic factor deficiency or autoantibodies against intrinsic factor. The presence of parietal cell antibodies can destroy parietal cells, which can also lead to a deficiency in intrinsic factor. Both lead to megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. The typical presentation of pernicious anemia includes fatigue, pale appearance, tingling sensation, depression, alterations to vision and smell, urinary incontinence, psychotic episodes, and weakness. The most effective treatment for pernicious anemia is intramuscular B12.
      Case Report: A 27-year-old female with a history of vitiligo presented to the emergency department (ED) with bilateral lower extremity weakness, clumsiness, numbness, and tingling. Physical examination revealed ataxia, no sensation below her umbilicus, decreased strength, and hyperreflexia in both lower extremities. Complete blood count in the ED revealed low hemoglobin and hematocrit and elevated mean corpuscular volume concerning for pernicious anemia. Further laboratory testing upon inpatient admission revealed a low vitamin B12 level and parietal cell antibodies in the blood. The patient's pernicious anemia was treated with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections, which led to near complete resolution of her symptoms.
      Why Should an Emergency Physician be Aware of This?
      Early suspicion and detection of pernicious anemia in the ED can prevent serious and permanent hematological and neurological damage and the development of other autoimmune disorders.

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